Pergamon Ancient City

Discover Izmir and visit ancient Pergamon

Multi Layered Cultural Landscape

Pergamon is an ancient city located near Izmir, gate to the history with its ancient temples, theatres, library, cultural heritage and richness. Pergamon rises high above the Bakircay Plain in the Aegean region of Turkey.


Ancient Pergamon settlement at the top of the Kale Hill, the capital of Hellenistic Attalid Dynasty, represents the outstanding example of urban planning of the Hellenistic period with its monumental architecture.

Temple of Athena, the steepest theatre of the Hellenistic period, library, Great Altar of Pergamon, Dionysus Temple, agora, gymnasiums and high pressured water pipeline system are the most outstanding examples of this period. The city has the most famous and well known sculpture school of Hellenistic period, which created the Great Altar that has been accepted as one of the wonders of the world since 2nd century BC. Great Altar of Pergamon and many other works produced by Pergamon School of Sculpture represent the climax in the art of sculpture in Hellenistic period.

The city, continuing its leading role in the cultural and scientific life in Roman period has become one of the most important metropolises of the ancient world. Outstanding masterpieces of the Roman Period, such as Sarapeion, Asclepius, Temple of Trajan, the theatre, amphitheatre and aqueduct are the representatives of the highest level in architecture, planning and engineering of the period.

Exceptional Masterpieces

The city hosting many exceptional masterpieces of the Hellenistic and Roman periods besides the surrounding cultural landscape, maintains its importance with its mosques, inns, baths and commercial center peculiar to the architecture of Ottoman period spreading over the layers of the Roman and Eastern Roman periods.

The settlement formed during Ottoman Empire maintains its viability on the public and commercial axles.

UNESCO World Heritage

Pergamon and its Multi Layered Cultural Landscape, the only capital city from the Hellenistic Period, inholding the layers of Hellenistic, Roman, Eastern Roman and Ottoman periods were inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO in 2014.

The areas, inscribed on the World Heritage List as a cultural landscape consist of nine components; Pergamon City, Kybele Sanctuary, Ilyas Tepe, Yigma Tepe, Ikili Tumuli, Tavsan Tepe, X Tepe, A Tepe and Maltepe Tumulus.

  • Official Name: Pergamon and its Multi Layered Cultural Landscape
  • Architectural Type: Ancient City
  • Date of Inscription: 2014
  • Category: Cultural
  • Reference: 1457
  • Location: Izmir, Turkey
Multi Layered Cultural Landscape
Pergamon Amphitheatre, Bergama, Izmir